Everyone knows you should read the “classics”; the canonical authors like Dickens and Shakespeare. You’ve heard it all before, and you know they’re all probably alright, but you never quite get around to reading all of them. But Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace is undoubtedly worth going out on a limb for, especially if you’re thinking about studying English at university.War and Peace is long. It’s like carrying a brick around in your bag, for six months (or less, if you’re a faster reader than me…). But as soon as you finish it, you’ll reopen it again at the beginning and start over. It’s an epic tale of re-generation and personal growth, that obsesses over the minutia of life and the role of tiny details in the establishment and maintenance of human society. It unceasingly manages to “startle and delight” us by its discovery of beauty in the mundane, and sometimes even the violent. The novel follows the lives of several members of the Russian aristocracy during the Napoleonic era, in particular focusing on Pierre Bezukhov, Prince Andrei Bolonsky, Natasha Ilyinichna and Nikolai Ilyich, whose individual narratives cross over and intertwine throughout the novel.The central theme of Tolstoy’s philosophical masterpiece is the role of the individual in the ongoing generation of history. In his own words, “the movement of humanity, arising as it does from innumerable arbitrary human wills, is continuous.” It is the inconsequential acts of the individual that comprise the sequences of history, joining together to form one great narrative that becomes inscribed in history books for the rest of time. Understanding Tolstoy’s theory of history illuminates how he views the world: his consideration of the way we shape and define history is essential to the study of English Literature. How was it that Shakespeare, out of so many successful Renaissance playwrights, is the only one who survives in the memory of most people today? It is this subjective, selective nature of history that Tolstoy analyses in War and Peace.In reading War and Peace not only will you have the satisfaction of completing the Herculean task of finishing the 1400-page behemoth, but you’ll gain skim-reading skills indispensable when it comes to studying English Literature. Being able to navigate huge quantities of information and highlight the moments that stand out to you – coincidentally, this is also the way Tolstoy aims to depicts the lives of his characters in the vastness of his scope combined with his use of extensive detail – is essential for university. You’ll learn it along the way, no doubt, but there’s no harm in getting started early. I found many of the longer politically-focused chapters less interesting than the fast-paced parties and romantic scenes, but finding out what kind of writing appeals to you is all part and parcel of navigating an epic novel as a student of English.
The book opens midway through a conversation, casually welcoming the reader into the book as though into Anna Pavlovna’s party reception. We become a guest, an actor compliant in the creation of Tolstoy’s narrative. “Well, Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Buonapartes…” This is no era-defining, Dickensian opening line, dripping with quotable Victorian wisdom. Instead, it is understated: we seamlessly join the movement of the whole text, a drop in the ocean, highlighting from the first line Tolstoy’s focus on the flowing mass of human society. Being able to comprehend and analyse varying perspectives is incredibly useful as an English student: Tolstoy’s perception of the inconsequential miniscule element triggering the movement of the whole, often unintentionally, might not be the way you look at the world, but it’s a viewpoint worth reflecting on.Finally, and perhaps most importantly, War and Peace will remind you time and again why you love reading. Tolstoy’s prose constantly amazes me with its simultaneous deep perceptiveness and almost carelessly light touch. When he depicts the ‘extraordinary autumn weather that always comes as a surprise’ one can physically feel one’s lungs “strengthened and refreshed,” and the sun shining so brightly “that the eyes smart.” If you’re interested in creative writing, this book is a gold-mine of eye-catchingly beautiful phrases and descriptions. Even in translation, 150 years after its first publication, it remains mentally stunning in its vividity. The Encyclopædia Britannica writes that “no single English novel attains the universality of Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace,” but despite its all-encompassing nature, I think it still takes the time to remind us of our insignificance by standing still and marvelling as the “gold stars startle and delight us continually by falling from the sky” – and that’s what renders it so spectacular.Lizzie Shelmerdine Categories: Articles Tags: educational guides 11255 Top Five Medical Innovations Shaping Practice Today
Medicine is a vast and ever-changing sea of ideas and practices, with each new wave refreshing how we care for our patients. What follows here is a collection of, in this author’s opinion, the five most inspiring innovations in the medical field across its history. There was no shortage of landmarks to choose from, but this list tries to deliver a snapshot of the achievements of physicians who have, arguably, accumulated less household fame than the Flemings and Listers of this world. And, to reflect the multifaceted nature of medicine, the subfields I touch upon include endocrinology, plastics, neurosurgery and reproductive medicine. Hopefully this list will be as entertaining and inspiring as it is informative!The striking image of a physician’s stethoscope is so synonymous with medicine that you’d be forgiven for thinking them siblings, twins even. But the reality is that the stethoscope is a relatively new addition to the chest examination. This particular examination usually consists of a visual inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation. Before the early nineteenth century, the first three components were very similar to how we conduct examinations today. However, auscultation used to involve pressing an ear directly against the patient’s chest. And this wasn’t great for hygiene; it was awkward for everyone involved; and it relied on the doctor having excellent hearing. The changes in the sounds of heart valves, air flow and blood flow are often imperceptible. To detect signs of pathology, it would be incredibly useful to amplify those sound for doctors. Enter the stethoscope.[ultimate_icon_list icon_size=”24″ icon_margin=”8″][ultimate_icon_list_item icon=”Defaults-calendar”]Year of Innovation: 1816[/ultimate_icon_list_item][ultimate_icon_list_item icon=”Defaults-user”]Key figures behind the innovation: Rene Laënnec[/ultimate_icon_list_item][ultimate_icon_list_item icon=”Defaults-flag”]Country of Innovation: France[/ultimate_icon_list_item][ultimate_icon_list_item icon=”Defaults-plus”]Medical field affected: Today, the stethoscope has become an indispensable tool (and fashion accessory) in every physician’s arsenal.[/ultimate_icon_list_item][ultimate_icon_list_item icon=”Defaults-globe”]World-wide recognition: Everyone knows about the stethoscope, but not about Laënnec 7/10[/ultimate_icon_list_item][/ultimate_icon_list]The stethoscope was invented in 1816 by French doctor, Rene Laënnec to make it easier for him to listen to patients’ breathing and heart sounds. Without it, chest exams would involve pressing our ears against the patient’s chest. This would carry an infection risk as well as being potentially embarrassing for both doctor and patient! Over the centuries since its invention, the stethoscope has evolved from a paper tube into a swish binaural instrument, now a must-have piece of kit for every doctor and an expensive piece of kit for every medical student. Finally, due to its widespread use in the medical profession, the stethoscope has become an important symbol for medicine, on par with the rod of Asclepius.[ci_quote]Today, the stethoscope has become an indispensable tool (and fashion accessory) in every physician’s arsenal.[/ci_quote]Plastic surgery is often thought of as a modern specialty, possibly because the reconstruction of external organs seems a very advanced and difficult undertaking. However, we mustn’t underestimate the ingenuity of the ancients, lest we invent a new form of prejudice. Nevertheless, the first plastic surgeon that we know of was born a long time ago indeed. Known only as Sushruta, meaning ‘renowned’, he is widely touted as the founding father of surgery due to his numerous innovations in the field, and we could fill a whole other article with them. But, for now, I’ll focus on his invention of the rhinoplasty, the first known technique in plastic surgery. In a culture where nose amputations were a common punishment, rhinoplasty gave offenders a chance at a normal life.
Sushruta, the mysterious ancient Indian surgeon, invented rhinoplasty among many other surgical innovations in the 7th or 6th century BCE. From him, sprang the specialty of plastic surgery, which benefits victims of disfiguring trauma worldwide. His techniques are being referenced and modified even now, which is an incredible legacy.[ci_quote]In a culture where nose amputations were a common punishment, rhinoplasty gave offenders a chance at a normal life.[/ci_quote]Today, in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is almost mainstream. It’s a topic taught in biology classes throughout the UK and it’s a now a tried and tested option for couples trying to conceive. As a relatively new technology, it’s rather astounding how established it’s become in such a short space of time. And the very idea of relocating the process of fertilisation outside the body is, at best, absurd! But because of this breakthrough, families have been formed that wouldn’t have otherwise. Lives have been lived and loved and lighting up their little corners of the world because humanity redefined what it is to be infertile.
In IVF, Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards pioneered a fertility technique that has allowed many couples to start families. While controversial in some circles, the process is incredibly successful for what really should still be science fiction![ci_quote]As a relatively new technology, it’s rather astounding how established IVF has become in such a short space of time.[/ci_quote]The paradox of surgery is an elegant one, encapsulated perfectly in the procedure known as the corpus callosotomy. To apply a cut, to actually cause damage, to tissue should really be in malice because to damage is to hurt. But surgeons cut beneficently, they divide to make whole again and brazenly ignore the reign of Mother Nature. They’re the ones who buy the IKEA wardrobe and assemble it themselves – instructions be hanged. Those extra panels and screws weren’t needed anyway. Brains, obviously, are not wardrobes, but neurosurgery still represents humans decreeing that they are qualified and capable to edit this most complex of organs. A common palliative procedure for epileptic patients is to sever the connection between the two hemispheres, known as the corpus callosum, in an operation called the corpus callosostomy. Because of this intervention, many people with epilepsy have been able to better manage their conditions.
William van Wagenen and Robert Herren revolutionised the management of epilepsy by performing corpus callosostomies to limit the spread of seizures through the brain. The resulting research by Roger Sperry laid the foundations for later psychological theories about the relationships between brains structures and their functions – without these surgeries, we wouldn’t know that the brain hemispheres contribute different things to the tasks that the brain performs.[ci_quote]without these surgeries, we wouldn’t know that the brain hemispheres contribute different things to the tasks that the brain performs[/ci_quote]Genetic engineering is almost like an abstract, macroscopic viral infection. The human contagion impregnates an organism with the instructions to produce proteins beneficial for the human, and only the human. We essentially implant an idea and farm the organisms to bring the idea into reality. Such was the dawn of insulin’s mass-production: human recombinant insulin produced from E. Coli bacteria. No more would diabetic patients have to rely on animal pancreases, when human insulin was now ready to be shipped out everywhere. Management of diabetes was made easier and cheaper, and it opened the door for modified insulins with more useful half-lives and pharmacokinetic profiles.
David Goeddel and Dennis Kleid at the Genentech lab created the first bacteria-produced human insulin. This meant that diabetic patients could use their insulin without fear of an immune response to the drug. In addition, the genetic engineering techniques refined in this endeavour could be widely applied to other human-specific protein-based drugs. The potential that this innovation unleashed was immeasurable, and we’re still seeing its fruits today.[ci_quote]Management of diabetes was made easier and cheaper, and it opened the door for modified insulins[/ci_quote]Each of these physicians and scientists, each in their own small way, helped to reshape the fabric of medical practice. Clinical examinations were never the same after Laënnec; recombinant human insulin fundamentally and forever changed the production of diabetes medication. These pioneers weren’t the first, and nor will they be the last to change how we treat our patients. Indeed, more humble individuals will come along and inspire us all with their vision and audacity. And that goes some way to explaining part of why this field and profession are so great.Kieran Kejiou Categories: Guide Tags: educational guides 11233 Book Review: The Rule of Law by Tom Bingham
In this book, Tom Bingham clearly and concisely unpacks an elusive concept that has become a sort of stock phrase in the legal profession- one ‘constantly on people’s lips’, as he put it. Lord Bingham is widely regarded as one of the greatest judges of his time and served at the pinnacle of the British judiciary as Master of the Rolls, Lord Chief Justice, and Senior Law Lord. With these achievements in mind, you would be forgiven for thinking only those with some form of legal training could understand The Rule of Law. However, Bingham did not write this book for lawyers and its accessibility to lay people is one of its best features. Its simple language, engaging case studies, and sprinkling of humour make it a compelling read for different audiences, including high school students considering studying Law at university.
The book begins with some historical background to the rule of law and Lord Bingham’s own working definition of the concept, which divides it into eight principles: (i) accessibility, (ii) law not discretion, (iii) equality, (iv) exercise of power, (v) human rights, (vi) dispute resolution, (vii) fair trial, and (viii) compliance with international law. The heart of the book is then devoted to a thorough examination of these principles, while the final part discusses the impact of terrorism and parliamentary sovereignty on the rule of law. A review of historical milestones behind the rule of law feels slightly extraneous to the rest of this study but is confined to one chapter, which Bingham acknowledges some readers may wish to skip. The heart of the book is gripping, however, as it elaborates the eight principles using real cases ranging from the abolition of slavery in Britain following the 1772 James Somerset case to modern day discrimination against non-citizens in the 2004 Belmarsh prisoners case.When explaining the last principle, compliance with international law, Bingham places the rule of law on a global stage and discusses war since it is ‘a fundamental pre-occupation of international law’. He examines the US and UK’s invasion of Iraq in 2003, concluding that it contravened the rule of law. This discussion remains relevant today especially given ongoing conflict in the Middle East, so the book is great for understanding what the law has to say about this topical area. Bingham’s analysis of terrorism and the rule of law compares the US’ response to 9/11 with that of the UK. It features illuminating scrutiny of US extraordinary rendition (basically used to kidnap suspects and torture them for information) and UK surveillance (‘more than 4 million CCTV cameras and the largest DNA database in the world’). Finally, his exploration of parliamentary sovereignty and the rule of law concludes that they are somewhat unhappy bedfellows as he believes no parliament can legislate contrary to the rule of law.The pros of this book (clarity, brevity, and interesting case studies) outweigh its cons. Its focus on Public Law, as opposed to other areas like Contract Law, is mostly a strength. The public law scenarios in this book, covering areas like human rights and terrorism, are the sort of things most interested people will have seen in the news and thought about. On the other hand, this focus could also be a slight disadvantage for prospective Law students. The Rule of Law only introduces you to a rather limited area of law (Public/Constitutional Law and Public International Law) when other introductory law books cover more. What About Law by Catherine Barnard, Graham Virgo, and Janet O’Sullivan, for example, uses case studies to introduce the seven core areas of a qualifying English law degree: Criminal Law, Contract Law, Tort Law, Land Law, Equity, Constitutional Law, and European Union law. You can easily get around this by reading other books too since The Rule of Law is quite short (under 200 pages)- that’s what I did! When I was a high school student considering studying Law at university, I read both The Rule of Law and What About Law and found this combination very informative. Summer programmes like Immerse Education are another interesting way to learn about different areas of law![ci_quote]Bingham did not write this book for lawyers and its accessibility to lay people is one of its best features.[/ci_quote]Overall, I would recommend this book to everyone. But turning specifically to high school students, I would encourage those aged around 16 and above who are considering studying Law or History at university to read it. It is more directly relevant to Law but provides some great historical insight for the areas it covers. Lord Bingham himself showed that you can combine these subjects since he read History at the University of Oxford before pursuing a career in law.Wali Chinula Categories: Articles Tags: educational guides 11232 Discovering The Secret of Life: How Understanding DNA Structure Revolutionised the Field of Medicine
If someone asked you to pick a key moment in medicine what would you choose? From the development of pioneering transplant surgery to something as simple as the usage of antiseptic before operations, numerous medical developments have all played a part in reducing mortality and increasing life expectancy. But ultimately what can determine your susceptibility to develop certain diseases? Environmental factors obviously play a part, but your genetic make-up plays a key role. The initial discovery of DNA structure was the first step towards understanding the human genome and laid the foundation for further invaluable scientific research.James Watson and Frances Crick are generally the names that spring to mind when thinking about the discovery of DNA structure in 1953, but their conclusions were based on the findings and hypotheses of numerous other scientists who deserve recognition.
Alexander Todd was responsible for determining that the backbone structure of DNA consisted of repeating phosphate and deoxyribose groups and Erwin Chargaff realised that the ratio of A to T and the ratio of G to C always remained as a 1:1 ratio despite huge differences in the actual number of bases between different species. But perhaps most importantly, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins discovered the helical structure of DNA using X-ray crystallography which significantly helped in guiding Watson and Crick to their final conclusions.So, what did all of these findings suggest about the overall structure of DNA? Perhaps a helix with 3 chains? Seems absurd now, but in the 1930s, Pauling, a leading physical scientist who had discovered the alpha helix, was adamant that DNA was a 3- chain helix with phosphates in the core and the bases (A,T,C,G) facing outwards. However, in their 1953 Nature paper Watson and Crick pointed out weaknesses in this proposed structure. Namely the fact that the negatively charged phosphates near the axis would repel each other and that the atom and bond spacing proposed in this model didn’t seem feasible. Instead they put forward a model which featured the novel idea of the 2 chains being held together by pairs of purine- pyrimidine bases linked by hydrogen bonds. What else was so special about their model? They realised that only specific pairings could occur and that these were A & T and G & C. This was a particularly significant finding because it meant that if the sequence of bases on one chain was given then the sequence of the other chain could automatically be determined. Watson and Crick expertly realised that this phenomenon of course provided a possible copying mechanism for genetic material. They went into greater detail regarding the general implications of the structure of DNA in their second paper which was published in Nature shortly after. Their most remarkable findings include realising that within a long molecule of DNA a vast number of different combinations of base pair sequences was possible and hence it seemed as though it was the base sequence that encoded the genetic information.The immediate impact of this discovery was huge due to its ability to explain DNA replication; their model showed that DNA was a pair of templates, each of which was complementary to the other. So, had they completely ‘discovered the secret of life’ as they claimed? Not quite. They still didn’t understand how the chains could unwind and separate in order to allow replication, nor did they know what the polynucleotide precursors i.e. the precursors of DNA’s ‘building blocks’ were. Nevertheless, they had made a breakthrough in the field of genetic coding and protein synthesis. This increased understanding of genetics also meant that the principle of heredity suddenly made sense and this supplied the major missing piece in Darwin’s theory of evolution. It was now understood that the passing on of mutations during future replications led to heritable variations, which of course was the mechanism for evolution to occur. Watson and Crick’s discovery also helped build on our understanding of 1800s Mendelian genetics i.e. the basis of phenotypic traits where variation is due to allelic differences at single loci. In simpler terms, understanding the nature of genes helped us understand the basis of qualitative discontinuous variation e.g. if a flower will be pink or blue or if a fly will be born with smooth or jagged wings.Also, once the structure of DNA had been discovered, the door to develop DNA sequencing techniques (essentially just a way to determine the order of bases) was opened. In 1972 the first complete gene was sequenced from a bacteriophage by Fred Sanger; but it would take many more years before human genes could be sequenced. It might seem as though only the ability to read the human genome is important, but in fact being able to to see the genomes of micro-organisms, especially pathogens, is invaluable. For instance, looking at the genome of the rapidly evolving virus HIV allows us to track the evolution of the virus within individual patients and tailor their treatment accordingly. It can also help us infer the origins of HIV pandemics as well as work out the transmission patterns within a country. The long- term importance of being able to sequence DNA for modern day medicine is that it may help us make our therapeutic medical interventions as effective as possible. It also is useful for lifestyle and reproductive decisions as certain alleles can suggest different levels of susceptibility to cancers, personality disorders and responses to drugs. It also of course enables genetic diseases to be immediately spotted and the usage of testing procedures such as amniocentesis on in-vitro embryos is invaluable. On a slightly less medical note, DNA sequencing is also used in forensics and in genetic fingerprinting. In the future gene therapy could be used to treat hereditary diseases such as cystic fibrosis. The process may involve healthy copies of genes being inserted into cells and mutated copies being deleted.The discovery of DNA structure laid the groundwork for all the complex genetic research techniques and procedures we use now and its iconic structure has even been used as architectural inspiration for buildings. What would science be like today if it weren’t for Watson and Crick? We would undoubtedly be decades behind with regard to scientific knowledge, but with the continual development of more advanced imaging techniques it is unlikely that it would have been long before someone else had worked out the structure. National DNA day, celebrated on April 25th, marks the date of publication of Watson and Crick’s first paper, even though the actual date of their breakthrough was February 28th at the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge. The now-historic Eagle pub in the centre of Cambridge, minutes away from where hoards of medical students attend lectures, was where the duo first excitedly shared their discovery with their peers and undoubtedly changed the course of medicine.
Anaesthesia is indispensable in modern surgery, but this wasn’t always the case. Surgery wasn’t painless, until Nikolai Pirogov took to the stage. The contributions of Russia’s greatest military surgeon are often overlooked in the west, but we really do owe him some recognition. Without him, we couldn’t have plaster casts, the Russian Red Cross, or certain forms of amputation.Like all Russian surgeons, Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov was born. More uncommonly, he was born on 25th November 1810, to a soldier who died young, leaving the family in poverty. The young Nikolai, however, was destined for greatness. By the age of six, he had taught himself to read Russian before later being taught French and Latin. With the help of a family friend, the Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Moscow University, Pirogov entered medical school at the age of thirteen. Then, he graduated as a physician, on his own merit, when he was seventeen. Four years later, in 1832, Pirogoff received his doctorate from the University of Dorpat before returning in 1836 to take his teacher’s job as Professor of Surgery! In 1841, he was invited to take charge of surgery at the medical hospital and academy in St Petersburg, the Imperial capital of Russia at the time. Despite less-than-stellar administration; poorly lit theatres; and jealous colleagues; Pirogov threw himself into his teaching and research. An oft-cited statistic states that he performed 12,000 dissections, alongside his lectures, and innumerable operations. It was during this time that Pirogov would experiment with anaesthesia and serve in the military to put his conclusions into practice. Returning from the warzones of Crimea in 1856, Pirogov published several papers about education, advocating reforms and better access for the poor, the foreign, and the female. The higher-ups in Russian politics did not like that one bit so, like many Russian surgeons, Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov retired.However, it’s his introduction of anaesthesia to battlefield medicine that gains Pirogov the most recognition today. Imagine going to war in the nineteenth century. Your body joins with thousands of other cogs in the military machine – their teeth chewing up the muddy maw of weeping earth, to present your flesh to the leaden teeth of the enemy. Rivers of blood slake Gaia’s thirst, seasoned with limbs and guts and burning hair, but still you live. Still you must face the knife and saw and needle of the madman who supposedly knows how to cut you up so you’re whole again. A new set of metal teeth, poised for dinner, upon tablecloth of your ragged, hell-raising screaming. Pirogov changed that last bit with his use of ether as an anaesthetic. Going so far as to perform his anaesthetised operations in front of an audience of soldiers, the Russian army surgeon showed all of his comrades that surgery truly could be painless. He even designed a device to administer the gases to patients without the help of an assistant! Later, Pirogov experimented with the less flammable chloroform and proved, in opposition to the British and French doctors before him, that it could also be used as a safe anaesthetic, provided that the doses were closely controlled and the patient monitored. The guidelines he devised for the administration of chloroform, and the accompanying advice on resuscitation following anaesthesia, helped to lay the foundations of the modern medical specialty of anaesthesia.
Beyond his use of anaesthetics, Pirogov contributed a great many advancements to medicine in both its military and civilian forms. Affectionately known – by me – as the Russian Florence Nightingale for his role in the training and deployment of female nurses, Pirogov introduced them both in battlefield medical centres and on the front lines. These changes would help shape the precursor organisation of the Russian Red Cross, on whose behalf he would later perform field hospital audits in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Also accredited to Pirogov was the elevation of surgery from an art to a science, through his use of frozen cadaver parts in the production of his atlas of topographical, or surgical, anatomy. By freezing the body parts, he was able to preserve the in-vivo positions and relations of the organs, so that a painter could accurately reproduce them on paper. While he wasn’t the first to use this idea, the sheer scale of his atlas containing 995 painstakingly rendered images was a frankly marvellous first.The final few achievements of note are: the first use of plaster to immobilise fractures; the implementation of a priority-based system of transporting the injured from the battlefield; the invention of several surgical procedures; the advocacy of specially trained assistants in the field of anaesthesia for surgery and other painful procedures. Truly, the footprint of Pirogov on battlefield medicine was and is enormous – the practices he invented were commonplace right up until the Second World War.Nikolai Pirogov is, to this day, remembered as the greatest surgeon produced by Russia. He’s appeared on Soviet postage stamps; an asteroid is named after him; three anatomical structures bear his name. But he’s also remembered for his ideals. By arguing in favour of a universal, flexible form of higher education, Pirogov exhibited a progressiveness that is refreshing to see in that era. However, outside his native Russia, Pirogov is relatively unknown. To remedy this, I’d thoroughly recommend a visit to the museum at Sechenov University in Moscow, the successor institution to the medical school he attended. Ask the staff about Pirogov and the pride with which he is remembered is staggering. The specialty of anaesthesia and the institution of the Russian Red Cross are indebted to the vision and tenacity of this truly extraordinary surgeon, teacher and scientist. Even the way we teach anatomy is influenced by his research – just a taste of it in the Immerse Education Medicine Programme is enough to be touched by Pirogov himself. We, in the field of medicine, all ought to be proud of him too.Kieran Kejiou Categories: Articles Tags: educational guides